RSS
Umar Khaleeq on Facebook
Umar Khaleeq on Twitter

Thursday, 26 May 2016

Essay On The Modern Society

Essay On The Modern Society .Cultural identity is not a problem fbr the general public but for the educated, whose upbringing has often included virtually inevitable elements of cultural alienation. The elite must return to their culture to understand it more effectively, and experience it as a living reality in order to find their roots in it. Seen from this angle, cultttral identity should be asserted primarily in the schools and universities.

An elite, often educated in other schools and sometimes unsure of its identity. must be helped into awareness of its own heritage, and its eyes opened to the fact that popular culture is not merely folklore.The question of each group of nation's cultural identity. which is at the meeting-point of culture and communication, shows the importance of language both as a vehicle of communication and as part of the cultural heritage.

Linguistic richness imposes not only a respect for the many languages existing but also a complex and costly adaptation of the communication network to the different linguistic areas, as well as the use of many language by the communication media in order to avoid standardisation. Language policy. therefore. constitutes one of the thorniest and most important issues in the formulation of communication policies.

Culture. which was not something separate from consciousness of the community's identity. was probably regarded first and foremost as a factor making for a stronger sense of national individuality: but the quest for cultural identity was, in all cases combined with sympathetic receptivity to the other cultures of the region and of the world, and. ultimately, to all that is universally human. which ruled out cultural isolationism and entailed the disavowal of chauvinistic assertions of distinctive nationhood.

The fate of modern societies is enacted on stage which now encompasses the planet. Societies which until a few decades ago were able to live in almost total ignorance of each other are today in increasingly close and regular contact. There is a growing interplay of reciprocal influences: interdependence is a reality in many fields of human activity .

Yet. while this interdependence is undoubtedly a source of mutual enrichment, receptivity, new initiatives and creativity, it is also a cause of frustration to the extent that it is accompanied by worsening conditions for certain people. and feelings of growing uncertainly and increased vulnerability. Sensitivity of changes, wherever they occur in the world, is becoming acute.

It is perhaps in the field of culture that the contradictory demands of new world relationships are most readily discernible. Communication between human beings is becoming global in its scope. and the quantity of knowledge and information available is constantly increasing. With the development. of computer technology', the possibilities of collecting this knowledge and information, of storing them and transferring them from one point on the planet to another, are also continually expending.

These exchanges and contacts are accompanied by a growing tendency towards a standardization of tastes and behaviour. and a homogenization of certain patterns of life, thought and action. of production and consumption propagated by the uniform dissemination of the same television series, the same musical rhythms. the same clothes, and the same escapists dreams.

This growing conformity. which seems to follow an internal logic of its own, is gradually invading more and more areas of human activity. In its turn it generates distortions, since it tends to promote whatever conforms to it, and to destroy everything that resists it. Whale sectors of creativity are thus repressed. and societies multitude in their individuality and their distinctive structure. Carried to the extreme, this logic could lead to the ossification of mankind, since diversity if accepted on a footing of complete equality', is an essential and fertile source of vitality for both individual societies and the whole world.

However, as a kind of reaction of this trend. a renewed. explosive affirmation of individuality is emerging. Communities everywhere -- ethnic and national, rural and urban, cultural and religious -- are asserting their originality and endeavouring to take in hand, and defend with vigour- those features by reference to which their identity is defined.

The will to affirm and defend cultural identity. appears now one of the major driving forces of history. Far from representing a withdrawal into an immutable, self-enclosed past. it fosters a lively. original and constantly renewed synthesis. A sense of cultural identity thus appears more and more to be sine qua non of progress for individuals, groups and nations; it is the force that animates and underpins the collective will, mobilizes inner resources, and turns necessary change into creative adaptation.

It is today recognised that the notion of cultural identity less at the very heart of development problems, but it is only recently that this t'act' has own full acceptance by the international community. It is only in the last ten years that our understanding of development, its paths and aims, has broadened and deepened. Originally equated with simple, liner economic growth -- vital. certainly, in so far as an increase in the production of material goods makes a decisive contribution to the improvement of people's living conditions.

When such goods are equitably distributed -- development has increasingly been seen to be an infinitely more complex, comprehensive and multidimensional process. which is effective only if it is based on the will of each society to full itself. and only if it truly exercise each society's underlying identity.

Genuine development can only be generated from within. willed conducted by all the vital forces of the nation. It should therefore. encompass all aspects of life and involve all the energies of a community within which each individual, each occupational category and each social group has its part to play in the general effort. and has its share in resulting benefits.

As so often happens. this growing awareness of the true nature of development was largely brought about by the setbacks experienced in development and industrialized countries like India.

The development countries, tempted to catch up with the industrialized countries by following the same path, have sometimes endeavoured to adopt approaches to development which, seeking to achieve raid economic progress by often inappropriate men's, did not always produce the expected results. or even brought new constraints which not only reproduced but aggravated those which had handicapped the industrialized countries.
At the same time, the industrialized societies, considered to be the most developed, have also come to realise the very serious problems caused by economic growth seen as an end in itself. Damage to the natural environment is exacerbated by new constraints which threaten man's very existence as a social being attached to a community with which he can fully identified.

The whole international community is thus, today. in different ways, increasingly coming to accept the idea of integrated development in which economic. social and cultural factors are commonly linked and contribute together to progress. Culture. which is connected with all expressions of life and which, of every
human being and every people, is the expression of their highest values and their very sense of life, emerges as the factor which is to guide and humanise economic growth and technical progress.

Communications technology has made such strides in the last few years that it has revolutionized life and development in both industrialized and developing societies. Increasingly, people are encountering other cultures in their everyday lives, discovering other values, observing attitudes unfamiliar to them, and thereby coming to know the any faces of mankind. And son. through direct satellite television broadcasting, it will be possible to transmit knowledge globally, and the irruption of other cultures into every home will be a permanent fact.

Whether the role of the new instruments is beneficial or harmful, will depend on the way in which they are used by mankind. It seems indispensable to integrate the communications media into culture polices, for it would be vain to pretend that the media only raise problems of technical order. They' are bound to have repercussions on political attitudes, on social behaviour, on ways of thinking. and thus on culture in the broadest sense.

If development is the concern of all institutions of the United Nations system. cultural questions devolve exclusively on UNESCO. which has for some years. been making an original contribution to the problem of cultural development by launching and promoting the idea of -cultural policy.



An inter-governmental conference on cultural policy was held by UNESCO in Venice, in 1970. and subsequently, a number of regional conferences met in order to deepen and continue, in their specific contexts. the process of reflection begun by the international community. and the accelerate the evolution from a elitist concept of culture to that of cultural action committed to development. which would promote the fulfilment of individuals and communities.

Essay On The Cultural Dimension

Essay On The Cultural Dimension .Cultural identity is not a problem fbr the general public but for the educated, whose upbringing has often included virtually inevitable elements of cultural alienation. The elite must return to their culture to understand it more effectively, and experience it as a living reality in order to find their roots in it. Seen from this angle, cultttral identity should be asserted primarily in the schools and universities.

An elite, often educated in other schools and sometimes unsure of its identity. must be helped into awareness of its own heritage, and its eyes opened to the fact that popular culture is not merely folklore.The question of each group of nation's cultural identity. which is at the meeting-point of culture and communication, shows the importance of language both as a vehicle of communication and as part of the cultural heritage.

Linguistic richness imposes not only a respect for the many languages existing but also a complex and costly adaptation of the communication network to the different linguistic areas, as well as the use of many language by the communication media in order to avoid standardisation. Language policy. therefore. constitutes one of the thorniest and most important issues in the formulation of communication policies.

Culture. which was not something separate from consciousness of the community's identity. was probably regarded first and foremost as a factor making for a stronger sense of national individuality: but the quest for cultural identity was, in all cases combined with sympathetic receptivity to the other cultures of the region and of the world, and. ultimately, to all that is universally human. which ruled out cultural isolationism and entailed the disavowal of chauvinistic assertions of distinctive nationhood.

The fate of modern societies is enacted on stage which now encompasses the planet. Societies which until a few decades ago were able to live in almost total ignorance of each other are today in increasingly close and regular contact. There is a growing interplay of reciprocal influences: interdependence is a reality in many fields of human activity .

Yet. while this interdependence is undoubtedly a source of mutual enrichment, receptivity, new initiatives and creativity, it is also a cause of frustration to the extent that it is accompanied by worsening conditions for certain people. and feelings of growing uncertainly and increased vulnerability. Sensitivity of changes, wherever they occur in the world, is becoming acute.

It is perhaps in the field of culture that the contradictory demands of new world relationships are most readily discernible. Communication between human beings is becoming global in its scope. and the quantity of knowledge and information available is constantly increasing. With the development. of computer technology', the possibilities of collecting this knowledge and information, of storing them and transferring them from one point on the planet to another, are also continually expending.

These exchanges and contacts are accompanied by a growing tendency towards a standardization of tastes and behaviour. and a homogenization of certain patterns of life, thought and action. of production and consumption propagated by the uniform dissemination of the same television series, the same musical rhythms. the same clothes, and the same escapists dreams.

This growing conformity. which seems to follow an internal logic of its own, is gradually invading more and more areas of human activity. In its turn it generates distortions, since it tends to promote whatever conforms to it, and to destroy everything that resists it. Whale sectors of creativity are thus repressed. and societies multitude in their individuality and their distinctive structure. Carried to the extreme, this logic could lead to the ossification of mankind, since diversity if accepted on a footing of complete equality', is an essential and fertile source of vitality for both individual societies and the whole world.

However, as a kind of reaction of this trend. a renewed. explosive affirmation of individuality is emerging. Communities everywhere -- ethnic and national, rural and urban, cultural and religious -- are asserting their originality and endeavouring to take in hand, and defend with vigour- those features by reference to which their identity is defined.

The will to affirm and defend cultural identity. appears now one of the major driving forces of history. Far from representing a withdrawal into an immutable, self-enclosed past. it fosters a lively. original and constantly renewed synthesis. A sense of cultural identity thus appears more and more to be sine qua non of progress for individuals, groups and nations; it is the force that animates and underpins the collective will, mobilizes inner resources, and turns necessary change into creative adaptation.

It is today recognised that the notion of cultural identity less at the very heart of development problems, but it is only recently that this t'act' has own full acceptance by the international community. It is only in the last ten years that our understanding of development, its paths and aims, has broadened and deepened. Originally equated with simple, liner economic growth -- vital. certainly, in so far as an increase in the production of material goods makes a decisive contribution to the improvement of people's living conditions.

When such goods are equitably distributed -- development has increasingly been seen to be an infinitely more complex, comprehensive and multidimensional process. which is effective only if it is based on the will of each society to full itself. and only if it truly exercise each society's underlying identity.

Genuine development can only be generated from within. willed conducted by all the vital forces of the nation. It should therefore. encompass all aspects of life and involve all the energies of a community within which each individual, each occupational category and each social group has its part to play in the general effort. and has its share in resulting benefits.

As so often happens. this growing awareness of the true nature of development was largely brought about by the setbacks experienced in development and industrialized countries like India.

The development countries, tempted to catch up with the industrialized countries by following the same path, have sometimes endeavoured to adopt approaches to development which, seeking to achieve raid economic progress by often inappropriate men's, did not always produce the expected results. or even brought new constraints which not only reproduced but aggravated those which had handicapped the industrialized countries.
At the same time, the industrialized societies, considered to be the most developed, have also come to realise the very serious problems caused by economic growth seen as an end in itself. Damage to the natural environment is exacerbated by new constraints which threaten man's very existence as a social being attached to a community with which he can fully identified.

The whole international community is thus, today. in different ways, increasingly coming to accept the idea of integrated development in which economic. social and cultural factors are commonly linked and contribute together to progress. Culture. which is connected with all expressions of life and which, of every
human being and every people, is the expression of their highest values and their very sense of life, emerges as the factor which is to guide and humanise economic growth and technical progress.

Communications technology has made such strides in the last few years that it has revolutionized life and development in both industrialized and developing societies. Increasingly, people are encountering other cultures in their everyday lives, discovering other values, observing attitudes unfamiliar to them, and thereby coming to know the any faces of mankind. And son. through direct satellite television broadcasting, it will be possible to transmit knowledge globally, and the irruption of other cultures into every home will be a permanent fact.

Whether the role of the new instruments is beneficial or harmful, will depend on the way in which they are used by mankind. It seems indispensable to integrate the communications media into culture polices, for it would be vain to pretend that the media only raise problems of technical order. They' are bound to have repercussions on political attitudes, on social behaviour, on ways of thinking. and thus on culture in the broadest sense.

If development is the concern of all institutions of the United Nations system. cultural questions devolve exclusively on UNESCO. which has for some years. been making an original contribution to the problem of cultural development by launching and promoting the idea of -cultural policy.



An inter-governmental conference on cultural policy was held by UNESCO in Venice, in 1970. and subsequently, a number of regional conferences met in order to deepen and continue, in their specific contexts. the process of reflection begun by the international community. and the accelerate the evolution from a elitist concept of culture to that of cultural action committed to development. which would promote the fulfilment of individuals and communities.
'There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so-, implies that what we reallY call evil is good in disguise. There is great wisdom in tile words of Shakespeare. -There is some soul of goodness in thins evil, would men observantly distill it out". There is no doubt that the end of good is in evil and the end of all evils is good. for, we must remember that if we want to be good. first we must believe that we are bad: and there is ram* truth in the statement, that to' the truly good man. nothing appears evil.

Man is free to choose good or evil. However there is no evil: it is our imperfect vision which sees evil where there is only good. All is well with the world. It is not entirely bad. at the most it can be said that the world is imperfectly good: man ha5 to realize the good or perfection: to do so, he must have faith in hiroself as a free agent. and God who will complete his endeavours, arid in immortal life, to complete his task and perfect himself. to overcome all evil in himself. All this apart, one thing is certain, there is nothing either good or bad and vice-versa, but thinking makes it so.

No man has ever progressed to greatness, but through mistakes. There is curious mixture of good and bad in us. We cannot be entirely good and completely bad also. If we are totally good. we are gods. and if entirely bad then we become devils. We are, as such, neither good no devils, but simply human begins; therefore, what is good with us is bad to others, and the position is bound to change. We may be as good as we please, if we please to be good. To be good, we must be good. or it attaches itself not merely to this life, it is greater and more than the life.

All that a man does is but the expression of his inward thoughts. To work effectively, man must think nobly. Nothing is so practical as our thoughts. Our views of life mould our life; our viewed of God mould our soul; and clearer the thought and purer the soul. the more successful and happier a life is ensured. Life is thought; to think is to live. Tolstoy spoke the truth. -Men suffer from thinking, more than anything else."

We must remember that good is a virtue, and bad is a vice. In the ultimate conclusion, virtue survives and the vice perishes. Good is that which is useful, whereas bad is that which is harmful. That what is beneficial, gives pleasure and brings profits, is good. Bad is that which is despicable. In fact, good and bad is the source of inspiration of an action. The seed determines the fruit. If the actions are good, it is certain that they cannot be inspired by the evil intentions and in the same way, on evil action can be the result of good thoughts.

Bad is only bad. and in itself is curse. We cannot do evil to others without doing it to ourselves. There is nothing truly evils, but what is within us. It is aptly remarked. "To be free from evil thoughts is God's best gift."

No man is free from evil. In fact God alone is good, and those alone have greater degree of goodness in them. who walk upon that path shown by Him. Good is power, whereas bad is weakness of the human character. Good is good in itself. and it cannot be the means to an end. A person is said to be good because he has diligently cultivated those qualities and virtues, which have lasting value.



Therefore, good is intelligent conduct which can be developed by the man only when he has comprehensive understanding of the evil. What is good in one society, in one age, in one pattern of culture, may be bad in another. One man's meat is another man's poison. What is considered good in Western society, is beyond toleration in Pakistani society. Hence, there is nothing good or bad and vice-versa, but thinking makes it so.

Essay On Penny Wise And Pound Foolish And Example

Penny-wise and pound-foolish' is the epithet applied to that man who is very unwilling to spend small sums of money, with the result that he is obliged to spend a larger sum that it would have been necessary if he had not been so miserly in the beginning. Such a policy is usually followed by men who are either very miserly or short-sighted.

In these days of keen economical struggle, the majority of men have to struggle hard and they earn perhaps just sufficient to make both ends meet. Under the pressure of their financial circumstances, those people are naturally led to adopt a penny-wise and pounding foolish policy. The temptation of being able to do by spending little for the time being makes them blind to the consequences of such a policy. They think that they will eventually find to their amazement that, as a matter of fact, that have had to spend more than it would have been necessary had they been a little more farsighted.

Every moment of our lives we find illustrations of this fact. For instance, penny-wise and pound-foolish persons, when they have to purchase the necessaries of life, always look at the cheapness of the article without paying any attention to its durability or good quality. The inevitable result is that the article in question does not last long, and where one of good and durable quality would have sufficed, he has to buy several. Thus, by spending a little more in the first instance, he would have been spared the subsequent drain of money. But foolish men of this type have never the heart to do it.

The proper method is to exercise prudence and forsight in all cases. If some necessity arises, which requires to be satisfied at once, it should be so satisfied immediately. Unless this is a done. the necessity might grow so urgent with the lapse of time, that not only shall we be able to avoid it but we shall have to spend more to meet its demands, which must necessarily have increased on account of the delay.

To take a homely example: a man suing six piece of cloth finds that one of them is worn out and unfit for use. If he be a prudent man he will at once replace this worn-out cloth by a new one. This will make the other clothes last longer and save him from the difficulty of having to buy several clothes all at once. But if he be a short-sighted man, he will think it unnecessary to spend money in buying a new piece of cloth when he still possess five pieces.

Being put to more use than formerly, these five pieces will wear our sooner and in trying to save the cost of one cloth, he will have to spend money for more than one. It is false economy not to meet immediate necessities. If a person does not do a thing early, he will be compelled to do it later, and that at a great sacrifice. A penny spent in proper time will save the expenditure of a pound at a later time. The wisest method, therefore, is not to grudge spending a small amount of money at the beginning, for that will mean the saving of a large sum of money in the long run.



Seeing that it is not at all safe to be penny-wise and pound-foolishing it should be our motto in life not to yield to the temptation of apparent economy. Such economy is always misleading and only leads us into the pitfall of extravagance, which brings want and woe. But from this it must not be supposed that one should not be economic. Economical we must be by all means. But we should always guard ourselves against false economy, which is never paying.
Essay On The Stitch In Time Saves Nine.This proverb in its literal sense applies to rents in our clothes which may be easily mended at first, bus' if they are left unmended, grow bigger and bigger, until they c,nnot be repaired without a great deal of sewing. What is true of tortbuilding of a new pier.and it was evident that to repair it would cost as much as the visit to the town, half of the pier had sunk in ruin under the waves,naturally grew bigger year by year until, on the occasion of my last much labour.

But somehow the breach was left unmended, and a hole of moderate extent, that could have been repaired without the structure. When I first saw the pier there was to be seen in it only bound coast, at little damage was done to the most exposed part of waves. Nevertheless, in one of the violent storms that visit that iron clamps of iron, and it looked as if it could defy the utmost fury of the great stones of which it was composed were bound together by coast of Scotland. to defend the harbour of a fishing village.

The great expense by Government many years ago on the stormy west the proverb from my own observation. A beautiful pier was built at that needs mending, I may quote a striking illustration of the truth of boots, boxes, houses, ships, walls, bridges, in a word, of everything.The expediency of the stitch in time is exemplified not only by the destruction of material fabrics, the rents in which are neglected, but also in medicine, politics, and in intellectual and moral education.

How often has a doctor to tell his patient that, if he had been consulted earlier he might have effected an easy cure, but that now more drastic remedies must be employed. A literary man. for inkance. suffers from indigestion due to overwork and want of exercise. A short holiday in the country might restore him to good health if only he took it in time. But he has important work to do and is averse to taking any rest before he has finished it. So he goes on working until the symptoms become so threatening that he finds himself compelled to consult a doctor.

To his surprise he finds that entire change of diet and absolute idleness for a long period of time are now needed to cure a disease, the progress of which might have been arrested with very little trouble at an earlier stage.

It is the same with the body politic. The best politicians see in good time evils which, if allowed to go on unchecked, will swell to alarming dimensions. Thus the just discontent felt by the people of France on account of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and nobles might have been appeased by remedial legislation, but, as the cure was delayed, the feelin of disaffection went on smouldering and gathering force, until at last it could no longer be extinguished and produced the horrors of the French Revolution.

That no revolution has taken place in England for the last two hundred years is due to the fact that English politicians have been willing to anticipate rebellion by timely reforms.

Monday, 2 May 2016

Essay On A Cricket Match

Essay On A Cricket Match.

Last winter I happened to see a cricket match in Lahore. The match was played between Pakistan cricket team and the West Indies cricket team. The match was played at Qadaffi Stadium Lahore.
Cricket is quite an interesting game. Every game has its plus points. It fosters discipline, duty, team spirit, cooperation and a sportsman's spirit. Some of the Pakistani players are players of international repute.
Cricket is played between two teams of 11 members each. It is played on a flat, smooth and clean ground. Cricket requires, two sets of stumps, wickets and a ball.

The distance between two sets of wickets is 22 yards. The bowlers take their turns after every six balls. In this game. much depends upon the quality of bowling. Good fielding is also necessary for victory. Before the game starts, there is the toss. It is the whim of the toss winning captain to first go for batting or fielding. The fielding party puts three fieldsmen on the one side, six on the off side, while one is posted for guarding the wicket and one for the bowling. The game is generally played for six hours a day. The umpire is the final judge. He is the man who declares the players out whether they are run out, bowled out, caught out, stumped out or leg-before-wicket.

The match which I witnessed was really very interesting. 'There was huge gathering at Qadaffi Satdium Lahore. Pakistan's leading cricketers were playing in the match. I saw the fine game of Saeed Anwar. He hit many boundaries, while Amir Sohail was very careful not to make a single stroke. But soon Saeed Anwar was out. Then he was replaced by Shahid Afridi. He made 50 runs in 76 minutes whole Amir made 66 runs in 70 minutes. Soon there was break for lunch. The Pakistani team made 219 runs for three wickets before lunch.

Then the West Indies players started batting after lunch. B. Lara played very fast and he hit to sixers. Soon he was out. Then Roger came and hit three sixers. There was a tremendous cheer from the spectators. There was great excitement among the spectators as well as players. Everyone was in high spirits. Roger Binny played lipto the end and he scored over a century. Then the umpire gave a long whistle and the match ended for the day.



The spectators dispersed. Some of the cricket fans were patting Roger Binny for his brilliant performance. Soon the crowd fizzled out and I came to my house. It was a thrilling match for me.
Essay On A Righteous Man Regardeth The Life Of His Beast.In England the cruel treatment of animals is a crime punishable by law and there is a "Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals- which does good work in bringing brutes who maltreat dumb creatures to justice. The Bible says, "A righteous man regardeth the life of his beast", thus making kindness and justice to domestic animals an essential part of human virtue. Those animals, such as the horse, dog, donkey and mule, which men have bred and trained for their own use have a special claim on our mercy and justice; the more so as they are dumb and helpless in our hands, and cannot plead their own cause.

The man who starves his horse, beats bis dog, or unmercifully overloads his ass, is a brute and a bully. He is also a fool; for even a selfish slave-owner knows that it is to his own advantage to have slaves well-fed and well cared for. And yet when we think of what many of these dumb creatures suffer at the hands of men, it is enough to make angels weep. As the poet Blake said:--

A captive Redbreast in a cage Sets all Heaven in a rage."

A great deal of cruelty to animals is due simply to thoughtlessness and lack of imagination. People do not always mean to be cruel; they just do not think. How many happy wild birds are caught and kept in small cages to please us with their songs! People think nothing of it, and imagine that if they keep the bird well-fed and its cage clean, it will be quite happy. But how can a wild think which has been used to flying in the sky in boundless liberty, ever be happy cooped up in a narrow space? Its songs should fill us with remorse rather than give us any pleasure.

We cannot excuse our cruelty on the ground of thoughtlessness. It is our duty to think; and no one who cannot enter into the feelings of an animal and sympathize with it in its weakness and helplessness, should be allowed to own one.



One cannot here discuss the question of killing animals for food. But if men must have meat to eat, it is their duty to see that such animals are killed painlessly. It makes one shudder to think what tortures sheep and oxen have to undergo at the hands of brutal men in unregulated slaughter-houses.
Man is a pleasure loving animal. He wants diversity of enjoyments. His intelligence has certainly enabled to get a much greater variety of enjoyment that is open to animals. Music. poetry and science, football and baseball and alcohol and cigarettes are some from which people of different temperaments and mental make-up derive pleasure. There are still others who undertake hazardous journeys on the uncharted ocean.

Some of foolishly expose themselves to frost-bite and other inclemencies of weather simply to be called conquerors of snowy peaks but the thrill-which these practical men get fails to stir their soul. Even if they simply profess, it transports them to some ethereal pleasure, no sensible person who experienced the vast range of vicarious pleasures would believe them.

In fact he who knows how to build castles in the airknow what the secret of perennial pleasure is, and which never gives one a feeling of satiety or frustration Much has been said in praise of the warriors who by their barbarian exploits conquered their so-called invincible enemies. But is it not a fact that these conquerors could never lead a life free from the fear of being over-run by some braver and more crafty warrior or soldier.

And this imaginary' fear drove them from one inhuman act to another? Did not Aurangzeb subject his father and brothers to most inhuman treatment simply to become the unchallenged emperor of India? Also they had cared to know how unconquerable is the person who handles sword in his dreamland where no blood issued and where forces fall as easily a butterflies in a young boy's net.

Had they been contended with such conquests they might have not got a few pages in history read by bespectacled scholars, they would have, at least, remained unchallengeable masters of their domains. After all what does it matter to a person whether people talk well or bad of him after he is dead Then why expose ourselves to the smoky hazardous battle-field? Is not our unconquerable fort which is not to be defended by death dealing weapons better, it is in this world that intrigues find little head way.

No doubt achievements give us a sense of fulfillment and a feeling of joy. But this joy is seldom or never in proportion to our efforts. Naturally all our plans and the pains taken in executing them head to insignificant pleasure, Not only that, This pleasure is not lasting. It is bound to result in frustration if success in one achievement is not followed by another. A part from that we may think that we have done something remarkable but others might not.

This will prick the bubble of our pride and pleasure; the appreciation is whole hearted it might be only of section of people whose opinions we value the least, Then the fear of not being up to the mark also dissipate the pleasure we are likely to get from doing something concrete. And the period preceding our success is a period of great tension. In fact what we do by building casdes on the earth is not to please overselves but to please others.

We work as salves and not as masters of our souls. If still some think that there is no pleaSure in idle dreams let them think so, It is a matter of opinion, and if we claim to be civilize we should not grudge them
the right to entertain worn ideas. Above all pleasure is completely a personal affair. When it becomes a community affair, as the pleasure from concrete achievement is, we may call it anything else, but to call it pleasure would be misnomer.

Nevertheless they who are earthy are contemptuous of day dreamers. The who 'late and soon getting and spending law waste their powers and little see in nature that is ours are prone to have such feelings for those who make plans and entertain hopes that can never be realised. But is the dreams of such dreams to whom we owe much of colour and joy in the world. They make our drab )world permeate with whose who make life worth living.

They wipe tears off every eye. They are the angles who do not fear to tread or even to rush, whatever the attitude of the down-to-the dearth people may be. It is a fact that in all ages such dreamers have been dubbed cranks. Nevertheless, it is the cranks of one age who dream of a world different from the one in which they lived that mankind have, though at a slow pace, become different from what other species are. The discontent of such dreamers with the present make them to visualise a world where mankind would enjoy the 'sweetness and light' they unconsciously had been instruments.

Day dreamers have super-human power of withdrawing themselves from the tedium of boring routine. They by virtue of sanguine optimism have the capacity to neutralize the blind darkness of the realist. The hopes they entertain never meet with frustration, and they with unheated zeal go ahead from one pleasure to another. This pleasure is rather unknown to those who cannot abandon themselves completely.



An egoist who is ambitious to become supreme lord of a cherished domain cannot known this pleasure. Only the meet enter this kingdom. Obviously of all sorts of material gains which yelled nothing but disappointment, with a pipe in his mouth and a vacant glance in its eyes our dreamer is transported to that region where hatred ignoble reclaims give rise to love, humanism, broad mindedness and internationalism. And the picture of the world that emerges from such thinking is a thrilling and colourful pictures as are seen through a kaleidescope by a boy.